Islamic Golden Age From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "Islamic Renaissance" redirects here. For the Islamist political party, see Islamic Renaissance Movement. The Islamic Golden Age or the Islamic Renaissance, [1 ] is traditionally dated from the 9th to 13th centuries for 400 years C.E., [2 ] [3 ] but has been extended to the 15th [4 ] century by recent scholarship. During this period, artists, engineers, scholars, poets, philosophers, geographers and traders in the Islamic world contributed to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, law, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, sociology, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding inventions and innovations of their own. [5 ] Howard R. Turner writes: "Muslim artists and scientists, princes and laborers together made a unique culture that has directly and indirectly influenced societies on every continent." [5 ] Contents • <--SS-- type=text/--SS--> // Foundations Further information: Early reforms under Islam and Muslim conquests
Age of the Caliphs Expansion under Muhammad, 622-632 Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632-661 Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 During the Muslim conquests of the 7th and early 8th centuries, Rashidun armies established the Caliphate, or Islamic Empire, one of the largest empires in history. The Islamic Golden Age was soon inaugurated by the middle of the 8th century by the ascension of the Abbasid Caliphate and the transfer of the capital from Damascus to the newly founded city Baghdad. The Abbassids were influenced by the Qur'anic injunctions and hadith such as "The ink of the scholar is more holy than the blood of martyrs" stressing the value of knowledge. During this period the Muslim world became the unrivaled intellectual centre for science, philosophy, medicine and education as the Abbasids championed the cause of knowledge. They established the "House of Wisdom" (Arabic:بيت الحكمة) in Baghdad, where scholars, both Muslim and non-Muslim, sought to gather and translate all the world's knowledge into Arabic in the Translation Movement. Many classic works of antiquity that would otherwise have been forgotten were translated into Arabic and later in turn translated into Turkish, Persian, Hebrew and Latin. During this period the Muslim world was a cauldron of cultures which collected, synthesized and significantly advanced the knowledge gained from the ancient Mesopotamian, Roman, Chinese, Indian, Persian, Egyptian, North African, Greek and Byzantine civilizations. Rival Muslim dynasties such as the Fatimids of Egypt and the Umayyads of al-Andalus were also major intellectual centres with cities such as Cairo and Córdoba rivaling Baghdad. [6 ] A major innovation of this period was paper - originally a secret tightly guarded by the Chinese. The art of papermaking was obtained from prisoners taken at the Battle of Talas (751), resulting in paper mills being built in the islamic cities of Samarkand and Baghdad. The Arabs improved upon the Chinese techniques of using mulberry bark by using starch to account for the Muslim preference for pens vs. the Chinese for brushes. By AD 900 there were hundreds of shops employing scribes and binders for books in Baghdad and even public libraries began to become established, including the first lending libraries. From here paper-making spread west to Fez and then to al-Andalus and from there to Europe in the 13th century. [7 ] Much of this learning and development can be linked to topography. Even prior to Islam's presence, the city of Mecca served as a center of trade in Arabia. The tradition of the pilgrimage to Mecca became a center for exchanging ideas and goods. The influence held by Muslim merchants over African-Arabian and Arabian-Asian trade routes was tremendous. As a result, Islamic civilization grew and expanded on the basis of its merchant economy, in contrast to their Christian, Indian and Chinese peers who built societies from an agricultural landholding nobility. Merchants brought goods and their faith to China, India (the Indian subcontinent now has over 450 million followers), South-east Asia (which now has over 230 million followers), and the kingdoms of Western Africa and returned with new inventions. Merchants used their wealth to invest in textiles and plantations. Aside from traders, Sufi missionaries also played a large role in the spread of Islam, by bringing their message to various regions around the world. The principal locations included: Persia, Ancient Mesopotamia, Central Asia and North Africa. Although, the mystics also had a significant influence in parts of Eastern Africa, Ancient Anatolia (Turkey), South Asia, East Asia and South-east Asia. [8 ] [9 ] Ethics Main articles: Islamic ethics and Early reforms under Islam Further information: Islamic democracy and Constitution of Medina Many medieval Muslim thinkers pursued humanistic, rational and scientific discourses in their search for knowledge, meaning and values. A wide range of Islamic writings on love, poetry, history and philosophical theology show that medieval Islamic thought was open to the humanistic ideas of individualism, occasional secularism, skepticism and liberalism. [10 ] [11 ] Religious freedom, though society was still controlled under Islamic values, helped create cross-cultural networks by attracting Muslim, Christian and Jewish intellectuals and thereby helped spawn the greatest period of philosophical creativity in the Middle Ages from the 8th to 13th centuries. [6 ] Another reason the Islamic world flourished during this period was an early emphasis on freedom of speech, as summarized by al-Hashimi (a cousin of Caliph al-Ma'mun) in the following letter to one of the religious opponents he was attempting to convert through reason: [12 ] "Bring forward all the arguments you wish and say whatever you please and speak your mind freely. Now that you are safe and free to say whatever you please appoint some arbitrator who will impartially judge between us and lean only towards the truth and be free from the empary of passion, and that arbitrator shall be Reason, whereby God makes us responsible for our own rewards and punishments. Herein I have dealt justly with you and have given you full security and am ready to accept whatever decision Reason may give for me or against me. For "There is no compulsion in religion" (Qur'an 2:256) and I have only invited you to accept our faith willingly and of your own accord and have pointed out the hideousness of your present belief. Peace be upon you and the blessings of God!" The earliest known treatises dealing with environmentalism and environmental science, especially pollution, were Arabic treatises written by al-Kindi, al-Razi, Ibn Al-Jazzar, al-Tamimi, al-Masihi, Avicenna, Ali ibn Ridwan, Abd-el-latif, and Ibn al-Nafis. Their works covered a number of subjects related to pollution such as air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination, municipal solid waste mishandling, and environmental impact assessments of certain localities. [13 ] Cordoba, al-Andalus also had the first waste containers and waste disposal facilities for litter collection. [14 ] Institutions Further information: Madrasah, Bimaristan, Islamic astronomy, Sharia, Fiqh, and Islamic economics in the world A number of important educational and scientific institutions previously unknown in the ancient world have their origins in the early Islamic world, with the most notable examples being: the public hospital (which replaced healing temples and sleep temples) [15 ] and psychiatric hospital, [16 ] the public library and lending library, the academic degree-granting university, and the astronomical observatory as a research institute [15 ] (as opposed to a private observation post as was the case in ancient times). [17 ] The first universities which issued diplomas were the Bimaristan medical university-hospitals of the medieval Islamic world, where medical diplomas were issued to students of Islamic medicine who were qualified to be practicing doctors of medicine from the 9th century. [18 ] The Guinness Book of World Records recognizes the University of Al Karaouine in Fez, Morocco as the oldest degree-granting university in the world with its founding in 859 CE. [19 ] Al-Azhar University, founded in Cairo, Egypt in the 975 CE, offered a variety of academic degrees, including postgraduate degrees, and is often considered the first full-fledged university. The origins of the doctorate also dates back to the ijazat attadris wa 'l-ifttd ("license to teach and issue legal opinions") in the medieval Madrasahs which taught Islamic law. [20 ] By the 10th century, Cordoba had 700 mosques, 60,000 palaces, and 70 libraries, the largest of which had 600,000 books. In the whole al-Andalus, 60,000 treatises, poems, polemics and compilations were published each year. [21 ] The library of Cairo had two million books, [22 ] while the library of Tripoli is said to have had as many as three million books before it was destroyed by Crusaders. The number of important and original medieval Arabic works on the mathematical sciences far exceeds the combined total of medieval Latin and Greek works of comparable significance, although only a small fraction of the surviving Arabic scientific works have been studied in modern times. [23 ] For instance, Jamil Ragip, an historian of science from McGill University, says that 'less than 5% of the available material has been studied.' [24 ] A Russian historian gives an idea of the numerical quantity of these manu--SS--s and works always findable: "The results of the Arab scholars' literary activities are reflected in the enormous amount of works (about some hundred thousand) and manu--SS--s (not less than 5 million) which were current... These figures are so imposing that only the printed epoch presents comparable materials" [25 ] A number of distinct features of the modern library were introduced in the Islamic world, where libraries not only served as a collection of manu--SS--s as was the case in ancient libraries, but also as a public library and lending library, a centre for the instruction and spread of sciences and ideas, a place for meetings and discussions, and sometimes as a lodging for scholars or boarding school for pupils. The concept of the library catalogue was also introduced in medieval Islamic libraries, where books were organized into specific genres and categories. [26 ] Several fundamental common law institutions may have been adapted from similar legal institutions in Islamic law and jurisprudence, and introduced to England by the Normans after the Norman conquest of England and the Emirate of Sicily, and by Crusaders during the Crusades. In particular, the "royal English contract protected by the action of debt is identified with the Islamic Aqd, the English assize of novel disseisin is identified with the Islamic Istihqaq, and the English jury is identified with the Islamic Lafif." Other legal institutions introduced in Islamic law include the trust and charitable trust (Waqf), [27 ] [28 ] the agency and aval (Hawala), [29 ] and the lawsuit and medical peer review. [30 ] Other English legal institutions such as "the scholastic method, the license to teach," the "law schools known as Inns of Court in England and Madrasas in Islam" and the "European commenda" (Islamic Qirad) may have also originated from Islamic law. These influences have led some scholars to suggest that Islamic law may have laid the foundations for "the common law as an integrated whole". [20 ] Polymaths Another common feature during the Islamic Golden Age was the large number of Muslim polymath scholars, who were known as "Hakeems", each of whom contributed to a variety of different fields of both religious and secular learning, comparable to the later "Renaissance Men" (such as Leonardo da Vinci) of the European Renaissance period. [31 ] [32 ] During the Islamic Golden Age, polymath scholars with a wide breadth of knowledge in different fields were more common than scholars who specialized in any single field of learning. [31 ] Notable medieval Muslim polymaths included al-Biruni, al-Jahiz, al-Kindi, Ibn Sina (Latinized: Avicenna), al-Idrisi, Ibn Bajjah, Ibn Zuhr, Ibn Tufail, Ibn Rushd (Latinized: Averroes), al-Suyuti, [33 ] Geber, [34 ] Abbas Ibn Firnas, [35 ] Alhacen, [36 ] Ibn al-Nafis, [37 ] Ibn Khaldun, [38 ] al-Khwarizmi, al-Masudi, al-Muqaddasi, and Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī. [31 ] Economy [ Age of discovery Main article: Islamic geography See also: Islamic economics in the world, Inventions in the Muslim world, Ibn Battuta, and Pre-Columbian Andalusian-Americas contact theories The Islamic Empire significantly contributed to globalization during the Islamic Golden Age, when the knowledge, trade and economies from many previously isolated regions and civilizations began integrating due to contacts with Muslim explorers, sailors, scholars, traders, and travelers. Some have called this period the "Pax Islamica" or "Afro-Asiatic age of discovery", in reference to the Southwest Asian and North African traders and explorers (though mostly Muslims, some were also Jewish Radhanites) who travelled most of the Old World, and established an early global economy [39 ] across most of Asia and Africa and much of Europe, with their trade networks extending from the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea in the west to the Indian Ocean and China Sea in the east. [40 ] This helped establish the Islamic Empire (including the Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid and Fatimid caliphates) as the world's leading extensive economic power throughout the 7th-13th centuries. [39 ] Several contemporary medieval Arabic reports also suggest that Muslim explorers from al-Andalus and the Maghreb may have travelled in expeditions across the Atlantic Ocean between the 9th and 14th centuries. [41 ] Agricultural Revolution Main article: Muslim Agricultural Revolution
The valve-operated reciprocating suction piston pump with crankshaft-connecting rod mechanism invented by al-Jazari in the 12th century. The Islamic Golden Age witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the "Muslim Agricultural Revolution" or "Arab Agricultural Revolution". [42 ] Due to the global economy established by Muslim traders across the Old World, this enabled the diffusion of many plants and farming techniques between different parts of the Islamic world, as well as the adaptation of plants and techniques from beyond the Islamic world. Crops from Africa such as sorghum, crops from China such as citrus fruits, and numerous crops from India such as mangos, rice, and especially cotton and sugar cane, were distributed throughout Islamic lands which normally would not be able to grow these crops. [43 ] Some have referred to the diffusion of numerous crops during this period as the "Globalisation of Crops", [44 ] which, along with an increased mechanization of agriculture (see Industrial growth below), led to major changes in economy, population distribution, vegetation cover, [45 ] agricultural production and income, population levels, urban growth, the distribution of the labour force, linked industries, cooking and diet, clothing, and numerous other aspects of life in the Islamic world. [43 ] During the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, sugar production was refined and transformed into a large-scale industry by the Arabs, who built the first sugar refineries and sugar plantations. The Arabs and Berbers diffused sugar throughout the Islamic Empire from the 8th century. [46 ] Muslims introduced cash cropping [47 ] and the modern crop rotation system where land was cropped four or more times in a two-year period. Winter crops were followed by summer ones. In areas where plants of shorter growing season were used, such as spinach and eggplants, the land could be cropped three or more times a year. In parts of Yemen, wheat yielded two harvests a year on the same land, as did rice in Iraq. [43 ] Muslims developed a scientific approach to agriculture based on three major elements; sophisticated systems of crop rotation, highly developed irrigation techniques, and the introduction of a large variety of crops which were studied and catalogued according to the season, type of land and amount of water they require. Numerous encyclopaedias on farming and botany were produced, containing accurate, precise detail. [48 ]  Market economy Main article: Islamic economics in the world Early forms of proto-capitalism and free markets were present in the Caliphate, [49 ] where an early market economy and early form of merchant capitalism was developed between the 8th-12th centuries, which some refer to as "Islamic capitalism". [50 ] A vigorous monetary economy was created on the basis of the expanding levels of circulation of a stable high-value currency (the dinar) and the integration of monetary areas that were previously independent. Innovative new business techniques and forms of business organisation were introduced by economists, merchants and traders during this time. Such innovations included early trading companies, credit cards, big businesses, contracts, bills of exchange, long-distance international trade, early forms of partnership (mufawada) such as limited partnerships (mudaraba), and early forms of credit, debt, profit, loss, capital (al-mal), capital accumulation (nama al-mal), [47 ] circulating capital, capital expenditure, revenue, cheques, promissory notes, [51 ] trusts (waqf), startup companies, [52 ] savings accounts, transactional accounts, pawning, loaning, exchange rates, bankers, money changers, ledgers, deposits, assignments, the double-entry bookkeeping system, [53 ] and lawsuits. [30 ] Organizational enterprises similar to corporations independent from the state also existed in the medieval Islamic world. [54 ] [55 ] Many of these early proto-capitalist concepts were adopted and further advanced in medieval Europe from the 13th century onwards. [47 ] The systems of contract relied upon by merchants was very effective. Merchants would buy and sell on commission, with money loaned to them by wealthy investors, or a joint investment of several merchants, who were often Muslim, Christian and Jewish. Recently, a collection of documents was found in an Egyptian synagogue shedding a very detailed and human light on the life of medieval Middle Eastern merchants. Business partnerships would be made for many commercial ventures, and bonds of kinship enabled trade networks to form over huge distances. Networks developed during this time enabled a world in which money could be promised by a bank in Baghdad and cashed in Spain, creating the cheque system of today. Each time items passed through the cities along this extraordinary network, the city imposed a tax, resulting in high prices once reaching the final destination. These innovations made by Muslims and Jews laid the foundations for the modern economic system. Though medieval Islamic economics appears to have been closer to proto-capitalism, some scholars have also found a number of parallels between Islamic economic jurisprudence and communism, including the Islamic ideas of zakat and riba. [56 ] [ Industrial growth Further information: Muslim Agricultural Revolution: Industrial growth and Inventions in the Muslim world
Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) introduced the experimental method to chemistry. He established the chemical industry and perfumery industry. Muslim engineers in the Islamic world made a number of innovative industrial uses of hydropower, and early industrial uses of tidal power, wind power, steam power, [57 ] fossil fuels such as petroleum, and early large factory complexes (tiraz in Arabic). [58 ] The industrial uses of watermills in the Islamic world date back to the 7th century, while horizontal-wheeled and vertical-wheeled water mills were both in widespread use since at least the 9th century. A variety of industrial mills were being employed in the Islamic world, including early fulling mills, gristmills, hullers, paper mills, sawmills, shipmills, stamp mills, steel mills, sugar mills, tide mills and windmills. By the 11th century, every province throughout the Islamic world had these industrial mills in operation, from al-Andalus and North Africa to the Middle East and Central Asia. [59 ] Muslim engineers also invented crankshafts and water turbines, employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, and pioneered the use of dams as a source of water power, used to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. [46 ] Such advances made it possible for many industrial tasks that were previously driven by manual labour in ancient times to be mechanized and driven by machinery instead in the medieval Islamic world. The transfer of these technologies to medieval Europe had an influence on the Industrial Revolution. [60 ] A number of industries were generated due to the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, including early industries for agribusiness, astronomical instruments, ceramics, chemicals, distillation technologies, clocks, glass, mechanical hydropowered and wind powered machinery, matting, mosaics, pulp and paper, perfumery, petroleum, pharmaceuticals, rope-making, shipping, shipbuilding, silk, sugar, textiles, water, weapons, and the mining of minerals such as sulphur, ammonia, lead and iron. Early large factory complexes (tiraz) were built for many of these industries, and knowledge of these industries were later transmitted to medieval Europe, especially during the Latin translations of the 12th century, as well as before and after. For example, the first glass factories in Europe were founded in the 11th century by Egyptian craftsmen in Greece. [61 ] The agricultural and handicraft industries also experienced high levels of growth during this period. [40 ] [ Labour Further information: Muslim Agricultural Revolution - Labour The labour force in the Caliphate were employed from diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds, while both men and women were involved in diverse occupations and economic activities. [62 ] Women were employed in a wide range of commercial activities and diverse occupations [63 ] in the primary sector (as farmers for example), secondary sector (as construction workers, dyers, spinners, etc.) and tertiary sector (as investors, doctors, nurses, presidents of guilds, brokers, peddlers, lenders, scholars, etc.). [64 ] Muslim women also had a monopoly over certain branches of the textile industry. [63 ] During the Arab slave trade, slaves were purchased on the frontiers of the Islamic world and then imported to the major centers, where there were slave markets from which they were widely distributed. [65 ] [66 ] [67 ] Slaves occupied an important place in the economic life of Islamic world. [68 ] [69 ] Large numbers of slaves were exported from eastern Africa to work in salt mines and labour-intensive plantations; the best evidence for this is the magnitude of the Zanj revolt in Iraq in the 9th century. [70 ] Slaves were also used for domestic work, [71 ] military service, [72 ] and civil administration. [73 ] Central and Eastern European slaves were generally known as Saqaliba (i.e. Slavs), while slaves from Central Asia and the Caucasus were often known as Mamluk. [74 ] [ Technology Main articles: Inventions in the Muslim world, Muslim Agricultural Revolution, and Timeline of Muslim scientists and engineers
The programmable automata of al-Jazari. A significant number of inventions were produced by medieval Muslim engineers and inventors, such as Abbas Ibn Firnas, the Banū Mūsā, Taqi al-Din, and most notably al-Jazari. Some of the inventions believed to have come from the Islamic Golden Age include the camera obscura, coffee, soap bar, tooth paste, shampoo, pure distillation, liquefaction, crystallization, purification, oxidization, evaporation, filtration, distilled alcohol, uric acid, nitric acid, alembic, valve, reciprocating suction piston pump, mechanized waterclocks, quilting, scalpel, bone saw, forceps, surgical catgut, vertical-axle windmill, inoculation, smallpox vaccine, fountain pen, cryptanalysis, frequency analysis, three-course meal, stained glass and quartz glass, Persian carpet, and celestial globe. [75 ] [ Urbanization Further information: Muslim Agricultural Revolution: Urbanization As urbanization increased, Muslim cities grew unregulated, resulting in narrow winding city streets and neighbourhoods separated by different ethnic backgrounds and religious affiliations. These qualities proved efficient for transporting goods  to and from major commercial centres while preserving the privacy valued by Islamic family life. Suburbs lay just outside the walled city, from wealthy residential communities, to working class semi-slums. City garbage dumps were located far from the city, as were clearly defined cemeteries which were often homes for criminals. A place of prayer was found just near one of the main gates, for religious festivals and public executions. Similarly, military training grounds were found near a main gate. Muslim cities also had advanced domestic water systems with sewers, public baths, drinking fountains, piped drinking water supplies, [76 ] and widespread private and public toilet and bathing facilities. [77 ] By the 10th century, Cordoba had 700 mosques, 60,000 palaces, and 70 libraries. [21 ] The average life expectancy in the lands under Islamic rule also experienced an increase, due to the Agricultural Revolution as well as improved medical care. In contrast to the average lifespan in the ancient Greco-Roman world (22–28 years), [78 ] [79 ] the average lifespan in the early Islamic Caliphate was more than 35 years. [80 ] The average lifespans of the Islamic scholarly class in particular was much higher: 84.3 years in 10th-11th century Iraq and Persia, [81 ] 72.8 years in the 11th century Middle East, 69–75 years in 11th century Islamic Spain, [82 ] 75 years in 12th century Persia, [83 ] and 59–72 years in 13th century Persia. [84 ] The Islamic Empire also experienced a growth in literacy, having the highest literacy rate of the Middle Ages, comparable to Athens' literacy in classical antiquity but on a larger scale. [85 ] [ Sciences Main article: Islamic science Further information: Islamic contributions to Medieval Europe, Timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world, and List of Muslim scientists The traditional view of Islamic science was that it was chiefly a preserver and transmitter of ancient knowledge. [86 ] For example, Donald Lach argues that modern science originated in Europe as an amalgam of medieval technology and Greek learning. [87 ] These views have been disputed in recent times, with some scholars suggesting that Muslim scientists laid the foundations for modern science, [88 ] [89 ] [90 ] [91 ] [92 ] for their development of early scientific methods and an empirical, experimental and quantitative approach to scientific inquiry. [93 ] Some scholars have referred to this period as a "Muslim scientific revolution", [4 ] [94 ] [95 ] [96 ] a term which expresses the view that Islam was the driving force behind the Muslim scientific achievements, [97 ] and should not to be confused with the early modern European Scientific Revolution leading to the rise of modern science. [98 ] [99 ] [100 ] Edward Grant argues that modern science was due to the cumulative efforts of the Hellenic, Islamic and Latin civilizations. [101 ] [ Scientific method Further information: Islamic science: Scientific method Early scientific methods were developed in the Islamic world, where significant progress in methodology was made, especially in the works of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) in the 11th century, who is considered the pioneer of experimental physics. [93 ] [102 ] The most important development of the scientific method was the use of experimentation and quantification to distinguish between competing scientific theories set within a generally empirical orientation. Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) wrote the Book of Optics, in which he significantly reformed the field of optics, empirically proved that vision occurred because of light rays entering the eye, and invented the camera obscura to demonstrate the physical nature of light rays. [103 ] [104 ] Ibn al-Haytham has also been described as the "first scientist" for his introduction of the scientific method, [105 ] and his pioneering work on the psychology of visual perception [106 ] [107 ] is considered a precursor to psychophysics and experimental psychology. [108 ]  Peer review The earliest medical peer review, a process by which a committee of physicians investigate the medical care rendered in order to determine whether accepted standards of care have been met, is found in the Ethics of the Physician written by Ishaq bin Ali al-Rahwi (854–931) of al-Raha in Syria. His work, as well as later Arabic medical manuals, state that a visiting physician must always make duplicate notes of a patient's condition on every visit. When the patient was cured or had died, the notes of the physician were examined by a local medical council of other physicians, who would review the practising physician's notes to decide whether his/her performance have met the required standards of medical care. If their reviews were negative, the practicing physician could face a lawsuit from a maltreated patient. [30 ] The first scientific peer review, the evaluation of research findings for competence, significance and originality by qualified experts, was described later in the Medical Essays and Observations published by the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1731. The present-day scientific peer review system evolved from this 18th century process. [109 ]  Astronomy Main article: Islamic astronomy Further information: Maragheh observatory, Islamic astrology, List of Muslim astronomers, and List of Arabic star names
Photo taken from medieval manu--SS-- by Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian astronomer. The image depicts an epicyclic planetary model. Some have referred to the achievements of the Maragha school and their predecessors and successors in astronomy as a "Maragha Revolution", "Maragha School Revolution" or "Scientific Revolution before the Renaissance". [4 ] Advances in astronomy by the Maragha school and their predecessors and successors include the construction of the first observatory in Baghdad during the reign of Caliph al-Ma'mun, [110 ] the collection and correction of previous astronomical data, resolving significant problems in the Ptolemaic model, the development of universal astrolabes, [111 ] the invention of numerous other astronomical instruments, the beginning of astrophysics and celestial mechanics after Ja'far Muhammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir discovered that the heavenly bodies and celestial spheres were subject to the same physical laws as Earth, [112 ] the first elaborate experiments related to astronomical phenomena and the first semantic distinction between astronomy and astrology by Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, [113 ] the use of exacting empirical observations and experimental techniques, [114 ] the discovery that the celestial spheres are not solid and that the heavens are less dense than the air by Ibn al-Haytham, [115 ] the separation of natural philosophy from astronomy by Ibn al-Haytham and Ibn al-Shatir, [116 ] the first non-Ptolemaic models by Ibn al-Haytham and Mo'ayyeduddin Urdi, the rejection of the Ptolemaic model on empirical rather than philosophical grounds by Ibn al-Shatir, [4 ] the first empirical observational evidence of the Earth's rotation by Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī and Ali al-Qushji, and al-Birjandi's early hypothesis on "circular inertia." [117 ] Several Muslim astronomers also considered the possibility of the Earth's rotation on its axis and perhaps a heliocentric solar system. [91 ] [118 ] It is known that the Copernican heliocentric model in Nicolaus Copernicus' De revolutionibus was adapted from the geocentric model of Ibn al-Shatir and the Maragha school (including the Tusi-couple) in a heliocentric context, [119 ] and that his arguments for the Earth's rotation were similar to those of Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī and Ali al-Qushji. [117 ]  Chemistry Main article: Alchemy (Islam) Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan) is considered a pioneer of chemistry, [120 ] [121 ] as he was responsible for introducing an early experimental scientific method within the field, as well as the alembic, still, retort, [75 ] and the chemical processes of pure distillation, filtration, sublimation, [122 ] liquefaction, crystallisation, purification, oxidisation and evaporation. [75 ] The study of traditional alchemy and the theory of the transmutation of metals were first refuted by al-Kindi, [123 ] followed by Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, [124 ] Avicenna, [125 ] and Ibn Khaldun. In his Doubts about Galen, al-Razi was the first to prove both Aristotle's theory of classical elements and Galen's theory of humorism false using an experimental method. [126 ] Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī stated an early version of the law of conservation of mass, noting that a body of matter is able to change, but is not able to disappear. [127 ] Alexander von Humboldt and Will Durant consider medieval Muslim chemists to be founders of chemistry. [89 ] [91 ]  Mathematics Main article: Islamic mathematics Among the achievements of Muslim mathematicians during this period include the development of algebra and algorithms by the Persian and Islamic mathematician Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī, [128 ] [129 ] the invention of spherical trigonometry, [130 ] the addition of the decimal point notation to the Arabic numerals, the discovery of all the trigonometric functions besides sine, al-Kindi's introduction of cryptanalysis and frequency analysis, al-Karaji's introduction of algebraic calculus and proof by mathematical induction, the development of analytic geometry and the earliest general formula for infinitesimal and integral calculus by Ibn al-Haytham, the beginning of algebraic geometry by Omar Khayyam, the first refutations of Euclidean geometry and the parallel postulate by Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī, the first attempt at a non-Euclidean geometry by Sadr al-Din, the development of symbolic algebra by Abū al-Hasan ibn Alī al-Qalasādī, [131 ] and numerous other advances in algebra, arithmetic, calculus, cryptography, geometry, number theory and trigonometry.
An Arabic manu--SS-- describing the eye, dating back to the 12th century  Medicine Main article: Islamic medicine Further information: Islamic psychology, Bimaristan, and Ophthalmology in medieval Islam Islamic medicine was a genre of medical writing that was influenced by several different medical systems. The works of ancient Greek and Roman physicians Hippocrates, Dioscorides, Soranus, Celsus and Galen had a lasting impact on Islamic medicine. [132 ] [133 ] [134 ] Muslim physicians made many significant contributions to medicine, including anatomy, experimental medicine, ophthalmology, pathology, the pharmaceutical sciences, physiology, surgery, etc. They also set up some of the earliest dedicated hospitals, [135 ] including the first medical schools [136 ] and psychiatric hospitals. [137 ] Al-Kindi wrote the De Gradibus, in which he first demonstrated the application of quantification and mathematics to medicine and pharmacology, such as a mathematical scale to quantify the strength of drugs and the determination in advance of the most critical days of a patient's illness. [138 ] Al-Razi (Rhazes) discovered measles and smallpox, and in his Doubts about Galen, proved Galen's humorism false. [126 ] Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis) helped lay the foudations for modern surgery, [139 ] with his Kitab al-Tasrif, in which he invented numerous surgical instruments, including the first instruments unique to women, [140 ] as well as the surgical uses of catgut and forceps, the ligature, surgical needle, scalpel, curette, retractor, surgical spoon, sound, surgical hook, surgical rod, and specula, [141 ] and bone saw. [75 ] Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen) made important advances in eye surgery, as he correctly explained the process of sight and visual perception for the first time in his Book of Optics. [140 ]
Ibn Sina (Avicenna) helped lay the foundations for modern medicine, [142 ] with The Canon of Medicine, which was responsible for introducing systematic experimentation and quantification in physiology, [143 ] the discovery of contagious disease, introduction of quarantine to limit their spread, introduction of experimental medicine, evidence-based medicine, clinical trials, [144 ] randomized controlled trials, [145 ] [146 ] efficacy tests, [147 ] [148 ] and clinical pharmacology, [149 ] the first de--SS--ions on bacteria and viral organisms, [150 ] distinction of mediastinitis from pleurisy, contagious nature of tuberculosis, distribution of diseases by water and soil, skin troubles, sexually transmitted diseases, perversions, nervous ailments, [135 ] use of ice to treat fevers, and separation of medicine from pharmacology. [140 ] Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) was the earliest known experimental surgeon. [151 ] In the 12th century, he was responsible for introducing the experimental method into surgery, as he was the first to employ animal testing in order to experiment with surgical procedures before applying them to human patients. [152 ] He also performed the first dissections and postmortem autopsies on humans as well as animals. [153 ] Ibn al-Nafis laid the foundations for circulatory physiology, [154 ] as he was the first to describe the pulmonary circulation [155 ] and coronary circulation, [156 ] [157 ] which form the basis of the circulatory system, for which he is considered "the greatest physiologist of the Middle Ages." [158 ] He also described the earliest concept of metabolism, [159 ] and developed new systems of physiology and psychology to replace the Avicennian and Galenic systems, while discrediting many of their erroneous theories on humorism, pulsation, [160 ] bones, muscles, intestines, sensory organs, bilious canals, esophagus, stomach, etc. [161 ] Ibn al-Lubudi rejected the theory of humorism, and discovered that the body and its preservation depend exclusively upon blood, women cannot produce sperm, the movement of arteries are not dependent upon the movement of the heart, the heart is the first organ to form in a fetus' body, and the bones forming the skull can grow into tumors. [162 ] Ibn Khatima and Ibn al-Khatib discovered that infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms which enter the human body. [163 ] Mansur ibn Ilyas drew comprehensive diagrams of the body's structural, nervous and circulatory systems. [5 ]  Physics Main article: Islamic physics The study of experimental physics began with Ibn al-Haytham, [164 ] a pioneer of modern optics, who introduced the experimental scientific method and used it to drastically transform the understanding of light and vision in his Book of Optics, which has been ranked alongside Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica as one of the most influential books in the history of physics, [165 ] for initiating a scientific revolution in optics [166 ] and visual perception. [167 ] The experimental scientific method was soon introduced into mechanics by Biruni, [168 ] and early precursors to Newton's laws of motion were discovered by several Muslim scientists. The law of inertia, known as Newton's first law of motion, and the concept of momentum were discovered by Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen) [169 ] [170 ] and Avicenna. [171 ] [172 ] The proportionality between force and acceleration, considered "the fundamental law of classical mechanics" and foreshadowing Newton's second law of motion, was discovered by Hibat Allah Abu'l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi, [173 ] while the concept of reaction, foreshadowing Newton's third law of motion, was discovered by Ibn Bajjah (Avempace). [174 ] Theories foreshadowing Newton's law of universal gravitation were developed by Ja'far Muhammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir, [175 ] Ibn al-Haytham, [176 ] and al-Khazini. [177 ] Galileo Galilei's mathematical treatment of acceleration and his concept of impetus [178 ] was enriched by the commentaries of Avicenna [171 ] and Ibn Bajjah to Aristotle's Physics as well as the Neoplatonist tradition of Alexandria, represented by John Philoponus. [179 ]  Other sciences Main article: Islamic science Further information: Islamic geography, Islamic psychology, Early Muslim sociology, and Historiography of early Islam Many other advances were made by Muslim scientists in biology (anatomy, botany, evolution, physiology and zoology), the earth sciences (anthropology, cartography, geodesy, geography and geology), psychology (experimental psychology, psychiatry, psychophysics and psychotherapy), and the social sciences (demography, economics, sociology, history and historiography). Other famous Muslim scientists during the Islamic Golden Age include al-Farabi (a polymath), Biruni (a polymath who was one of the earliest anthropologists and a pioneer of geodesy), [180 ] Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī (a polymath), and Ibn Khaldun (considered to be a pioneer of several social sciences [181 ] such as demography, [182 ] economics, [183 ] cultural history, [184 ] historiography [185 ] and sociology), [186 ] among others.  Other achievements  Architecture Main article: Islamic architecture
The Taj Mahal is a mausoleum located in Agra, India, that was built under Mughal rule.
Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575. Edirne, Turkey. The Great Mosque of Xi'an in China was completed circa 740, and the Great Mosque of Samarra in Iraq was completed in 847. The Great Mosque of Samarra combined the hypostyle architecture of rows of columns supporting a flat base above which a huge spiraling minaret was constructed. The Spanish Muslims began construction of the Great Mosque at Cordoba in 785 marking the beginning of Islamic architecture in Spain and Northern Africa (see Moors). The mosque is noted for its striking interior arches. Moorish architecture reached its peak with the construction of the Alhambra, the magnificent palace/fortress of Granada, with its open and breezy interior spaces adorned in red, blue, and gold. The walls are decorated with stylized foliage motifs, Arabic in--SS--ions, and arabesque design work, with walls covered in glazed tiles. Another distinctive sub-style is the architecture of the Mughal Empire in India in the 15-17th centuries. Blending Islamic and Hindu elements, the emperor Akbar constructed the royal city of Fatehpur Sikri, located 26 miles (42 km) west of Agra, in the late 1500s and his grandson Shah Jahan had constructed the mausoleum of Taj Mahal for Mumtaz Mahal in the 1650s, though this time period is well after the Islamic Golden Age. In the Sunni Muslim Ottoman Empire massive mosques with ornate tiles and calligraphy were constructed by a series of sultans including the Süleymaniye Mosque , Sultanahmet Mosque, Selimiye Mosque, and Bayezid II Mosque  Arts Main article: Islamic art Further information: Islamic calligraphy, Arabesque, Iranian art, and Persian miniature See also: Islamic music, Arabic music, and Persian traditional music
An Arabic manu--SS-- from the 13th century depicting Socrates (Soqrāt) in discussion with his pupils. The golden age of Islamic (and/or Muslim) art lasted from 750 to the 16th century, when ceramics, glass, metalwork, textiles, illuminated manu--SS--s, and woodwork flourished. Lustrous glazing was an Islamic contribution to ceramics. Islamic luster-painted ceramics were imitated by Italian potters during the Renaissance. Manu--SS-- illumination developed into an important and greatly respected art, and portrait miniature painting flourished in Persia. Calligraphy, an essential aspect of written Arabic, developed in manu--SS--s and architectural decoration.  Literature Main articles: Islamic literature, Arabic literature, Arabic epic literature, and Persian literature The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights), which was a compilation of many earlier folk tales told by the Persian Queen Scheherazade. The epic took form in the 10th century and reached its final form by the 14th century; the number and type of tales have varied from one manu--SS-- to another. [187 ] All Arabian fantasy tales were often called "Arabian Nights" when translated into English, regardless of whether they appeared in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, in any version, and a number of tales are known in Europe as "Arabian Nights" despite existing in no Arabic manu--SS--. [187 ]
"Ali Baba" by Maxfield Parrish. This epic has been influential in the West since it was translated in the 18th century, first by Antoine Galland. [188 ] Many imitations were written, especially in France. [189 ] Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin, Sinbad and Ali Baba. However, no medieval Arabic source has been traced for Aladdin, which was incorporated into The Book of One Thousand and One Nights by its French translator, Antoine Galland, who heard it from an Arab Syrian Christian storyteller from Aleppo. Part of its popularity may have sprung from the increasing historical and geographical knowledge, so that places of which little was known and so marvels were plausible had to be set further "long ago" or farther "far away"; this is a process that continues, and finally culminate in the fantasy world having little connection, if any, to actual times and places. A number of elements from Arabian mythology and Persian mythology are now common in modern fantasy, such as genies, bahamuts, magic carpets, magic lamps, etc. [189 ] When L. Frank Baum proposed writing a modern fairy tale that banished stereotypical elements, he included the genie as well as the dwarf and the fairy as stereotypes to go. [190 ] Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, the national epic of Iran, is a mythical and heroic retelling of Persian history. Amir Arsalan was also a popular mythical Persian story, which has influenced some modern works of fantasy fiction, such as The Heroic Legend of Arslan. A famous example of Arabic poetry and Persian poetry on romance (love) is Layla and Majnun, dating back to the Umayyad era in the 7th century. It is a tragic story of undying love much like the later Romeo and Juliet, which was itself said to have been inspired by a Latin version of Layli and Majnun to an extent. [191 ] Ibn Tufail (Abubacer) and Ibn al-Nafis were pioneers of the philosophical novel. Ibn Tufail wrote the first fictional Arabic novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan (Philosophus Autodidactus) as a response to al-Ghazali's The Incoherence of the Philosophers, and then Ibn al-Nafis also wrote a novel Theologus Autodidactus as a response to Ibn Tufail's Philosophus Autodidactus. Both of these narratives had protagonists (Hayy in Philosophus Autodidactus and Kamil in Theologus Autodidactus) who were autodidactic feral children living in seclusion on a desert island, both being the earliest examples of a desert island story. However, while Hayy lives alone with animals on the desert island for the rest of the story in Philosophus Autodidactus, the story of Kamil extends beyond the desert island setting in Theologus Autodidactus, developing into the earliest known coming of age plot and eventually becoming the first example of a science fiction novel. [159 ] [192 ] Theologus Autodidactus, written by the Arabian polymath Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288), is the first example of a science fiction novel. It deals with various science fiction elements such as spontaneous generation, futurology, the end of the world and doomsday, resurrection, and the afterlife. Rather than giving supernatural or mythological explnations for these events, Ibn al-Nafis attempted to explain these plot elements using the scientific knowledge of biology, astronomy, cosmology and geology known in his time. His main purpose behind this science fiction work was to explain Islamic religious teachings in terms of science and philosophy through the use of fiction. [193 ] A Latin translation of Ibn Tufail's work, Philosophus Autodidactus, first appeared in 1671, prepared by Edward Pococke the Younger, followed by an English translation by Simon Ockley in 1708, as well as German and Dutch translations. These translations later inspired Daniel Defoe to write Robinson Crusoe, regarded as the first novel in English. [194 ] [195 ] [196 ] [197 ] Philosophus Autodidactus also inspired Robert Boyle to write his own philosophical novel set on an island, The Aspiring Naturalist. [198 ] The story also anticipated Rousseau's Emile: or, On Education in some ways, and is also similar to Mowgli's story in Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book as well as Tarzan's story, in that a baby is abandoned but taken care of and fed by a mother wolf. [199 ] Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy, considered the greatest epic of Italian literature, derived many features of and episodes about the hereafter directly or indirectly from Arabic works on Islamic eschatology: the Hadith and the Kitab al-Miraj (translated into Latin in 1264 or shortly before [200 ] as Liber Scale Machometi, "The Book of Muhammad's Ladder") concerning Muhammad's ascension to Heaven, and the spiritual writings of Ibn Arabi. The Moors also had a noticeable influence on the works of George Peele and William Shakespeare. Some of their works featured Moorish characters, such as Peele's The Battle of Alcazar and Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice, Titus Andronicus and Othello, which featured a Moorish Othello as its title character. These works are said to have been inspired by several Moorish delegations from Morocco to Elizabethan England at the beginning of the 17th century. [201 ]  Music
The lute was adopted from the Arab world. 1568 print. Main articles: Islamic music and Arabic music A number of musical instruments used in Western music are believed to have been derived from Arabic musical instruments: the lute was derived from the al'ud, the rebec (ancestor of violin) from the rebab, the guitar from qitara, naker from naqareh, adufe from al-duff, alboka from al-buq, anafil from al-nafir, exabeba from al-shabbaba (flute), atabal (bass drum) from al-tabl, atambal from al-tinbal, [202 ] the balaban, the castanet from kasatan, sonajas de azófar from sunuj al-sufr, the conical bore wind instruments, [203 ] the xelami from the sulami or fistula (flute or musical pipe), [204 ] the shawm and dulzaina from the reed instruments zamr and al-zurna, [205 ] the gaita from the ghaita, rackett from iraqya or iraqiyya, [206 ] the harp and zither from the qanun, [207 ] canon from qanun, geige (violin) from ghichak, [208 ] and the theorbo from the tarab. [209 ] A theory on the origins of the Western Solfège musical notation suggests that it may have also had Arabic origins. It has been argued that the Solfège syllables (do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, ti) may have been derived from the syllables of the Arabic solmization system Durr-i-Mufassal ("Separated Pearls") (dal, ra, mim, fa, sad, lam). This origin theory was first proposed by Meninski in his Thesaurus Linguarum Orientalum (1680) and then by Laborde in his Essai sur la Musique Ancienne et Moderne (1780). [210 ] [211 ] See as well the gifted Ziryab (Abu l-Hasan 'Ali Ibn Nafi').  Philosophy Main articles: Islamic philosophy and Early Islamic philosophy Further information: Logic in Islamic philosophy, Judeo-Islamic philosophies (800 - 1400), and List of Muslim philosophers See also: Islamic theology, Avicennism, Averroism, Early Muslim sociology, and Historiography of early Islam
Averroes, an Arab Muslim polymath is the founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, was influential in the rise of secular thought in Western Europe. [212 ] Arab philosophers like al-Kindi (Alkindus) and Ibn Rushd (Averroes) and Persian philosophers like Ibn Sina (Avicenna) played a major role in preserving the works of Aristotle, whose ideas came to dominate the non-religious thought of the Christian and Muslim worlds. They would also absorb ideas from China, and India, adding to them tremendous knowledge from their own studies. Three speculative thinkers, al-Kindi, al-Farabi, and Avicenna (Ibn Sina), fused Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism with other ideas introduced through Islam, such as Kalam and Qiyas. This led to Avicenna founding his own Avicennism school of philosophy, which was influential in both Islamic and Christian lands. Avicenna was also a critic of Aristotelian logic and founder of Avicennian logic, and he developed the concepts of empiricism and tabula rasa, and distinguished between essence and existence. From Spain the Arabic philosophic literature was translated into Hebrew, Latin, and Ladino, contributing to the development of modern European philosophy. The Jewish philosopher Moses Maimonides, Muslim sociologist-historian Ibn Khaldun, Carthage citizen Constantine the African who translated Greek medical texts, and the Muslim Al-Khwarzimi's collation of mathematical techniques were important figures of the Golden Age. One of the most influential Muslim philosophers in the West was Averroes (Ibn Rushd), founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, whose works and commentaries had an impact on the rise of secular thought in Western Europe. [212 ] He also developed the concept of "existence precedes essence". [213 ] Another influential philosopher who had a significant influence on modern philosophy was Ibn Tufail. His philosophical novel, Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, translated into Latin as Philosophus Autodidactus in 1671, developed the themes of empiricism, tabula rasa, nature versus nurture, [214 ] condition of possibility, materialism, [215 ] and Molyneux's Problem. [216 ] European scholars and writers influenced by this novel include John Locke, [217 ] Gottfried Leibniz, [197 ] Melchisédech Thévenot, John Wallis, Christiaan Huygens, [218 ] George Keith, Robert Barclay, the Quakers, [219 ] and Samuel Hartlib. [198 ] Al-Ghazali also had an important influence on Jewish thinkers like Maimonides [220 ] [221 ] and Christian medieval philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas [222 ] and René Descartes, who expressed similar ideas to that of al-Ghazali in Discourse on the Method. [223 ] However, al-Ghazali also wrote a devastating critique in his The Incoherence of the Philosophers on the speculative theological works of Kindi, Farabi and Ibn Sina. The study of metaphysics declined in the Muslim world due to this critique, though Ibn Rushd (Averroes) responded strongly in his The Incoherence of the Incoherence to many of the points Ghazali raised. Nevertheless, Avicennism continued to flourish long after and Islamic philosophers continued making advances in philosophy through to the 17th century, when Mulla Sadra founded his school of Transcendent Theosophy and developed the concept of existentialism. [224 ] Other influential Muslim philosophers include al-Jahiz, a pioneer of evolutionary thought and natural selection; Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen), a pioneer of phenomenology and the philosophy of science and a critic of Aristotelian natural philosophy and Aristotle's concept of place (topos); Biruni, a critic of Aristotelian natural philosophy; Ibn Tufail and Ibn al-Nafis, pioneers of the philosophical novel; Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi, founder of Illuminationist philosophy; Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, a critic of Aristotelian logic and a pioneer of inductive logic; and Ibn Khaldun, a pioneer in the philosophy of history [186 ] and social philosophy.  End of the Golden Age  Mongol invasion and Turkic settlement After the Crusades from the West that resulted in the instability of the Islamic world during the 11th century, a new threat came from the East during the 13th century: the Mongol invasions. In 1206, Genghis Khan from Central Asia established a powerful Mongol Empire. A Mongolian ambassador to the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad is said to have been murdered, [225 ] which may have been one of the reasons behind Hulagu Khan's sack of Baghdad in 1258. [226 ] The Mongols and Turks from Central Asia conquered most of the Eurasian land mass, including both China in the east and parts of the old Islamic Caliphate and Persian Islamic Khwarezm, as well as Russia and Eastern Europe in the west, and subsequent invasions of the Levant. Later Mongol leaders, such as Timur, though he himself became a Muslim, destroyed many cities, slaughtered thousands of people and did irreparable damage to the ancient irrigation systems of Mesopotamia. These invasions transformed a settled society to a nomadic one. On the other hand, due to the lack of a powerful leader after the Mongolian invasion and Turkish settlement, some local Turkish kingdoms appeared in the Islamic world and they were in war and fighting against each other for centuries. The most powerful kingdoms among them were the empire of Ottoman Turks, who became Sunni Muslims and the empire of Safavi Turks, who became Shia Muslims. Eventually, they invaded very wide parts of the Islamic world and entered in a competition and a series of bloody wars until the middle of seventeenth century. Traditionalist Muslims at the time, including the polymath Ibn al-Nafis, believed that the Crusades and Mongol invasions were a divine punishment from God against Muslims deviating from the Sunnah. As a result, the falsafa, some of whom held ideas incompatible with the Sunnah, became targets of criticism from many traditionalist Muslims, though other traditionalists such as Ibn al-Nafis made attempts at reconciling reason with revelation and blur the line between the two. [227 ] Eventually, the Mongols and Turks that settled in parts of Persia, Central Asia, Russia and Anatolia converted to Islam, and as a result, the Ilkhanate, Golden Horde and Chagatai Khanates became Islamic states. In many instances, Mongols assimilated into various Muslim Iranian or Turkic peoples (for instance, one of the greatest Muslim astronomers of the 15th century, Ulugh Beg, was a grandson of Timur). By the time the Ottoman Empire rose from the ashes, the Golden Age is considered to have come to an end.  Causes of decline Further information: Islamic science: Decline See also: Great divergence and European miracle "The achievements of the Arabic speaking peoples between the ninth and twelfth centuries are so great as to baffle our understanding. The decadence of Islam and of Arabic is almost as puzzling in its speed and completeness as their phenomenal rise. Scholars will forever try to explain it as they try to explain the decadence and fall of Rome. Such questions are exceedingly complex and it is impossible to answer them in a simple way." — George Sarton , The Incubation of Western Culture in the Middle East' [228 ] Islamic civilization, which had at the outset been creative and dynamic in dealing with issues, began to struggle to respond to the challenges and rapid changes it faced from the 12th century onwards, towards the end of the Abbassid rule. Despite a brief respite with the new Ottoman rule, the decline continued until its eventual collapse and subsequent stagnation in the 20th century. Some scholars such as M. I. Sanduk believe that the declination began from around the 11th century and still continued after this. [229 ] Despite a number of attempts by many writers, historical and modern, none seem to agree on the causes of decline. The main views on the causes of decline comprise the following: political mismanagement after the early Caliphs (10th century onwards), foreign involvement by invading forces and colonial powers (11th century Crusades, 13th century Mongol Empire, 15th century Reconquista, 19th century European colonial empires), and the disruption to the cycle of equity based on Ibn Khaldun's famous model of Asabiyyah (the rise and fall of civilizations) which points to the decline being mainly due to political and economic factors. [2 ] The North Africa's Islamic civilization collapsed after exhausting its resources in internal fighting and suffering devastation from the invasion of the Bedouin tribes of Banu Sulaym and Banu Hilal. [230 ] [231 ] The Black Death ravaged much of the Islamic world in the mid-14th century. Plague epidemics kept returning to the Islamic world up to the 19th century. [232 ] There was an increasing lack of tolerance of intellectual debate and freedom of thought, with some seminaries systematically forbidding speculative philosophy, while polemic debates appear to have been abandoned in the 14th century. A significant intellectual shift in Islamic philosophy is perhaps demonstrated by al-Ghazali's late 11th century polemic work The Incoherence of the Philosophers, which lambasted metaphysical philosophy in favor of the primacy of --SS--ure, and was later criticized in The Incoherence of the Incoherence by Averroes. Institutions of science comprising Islamic universities, libraries (including the House of Wisdom), observatories, and hospitals, were later destroyed by foreign invaders like the Crusaders and particularly the Mongols, and were rarely promoted again in the devastated regions. [233 ] Not only wasn't new publishing equipment accepted but also wide illiteracy overwhelmed the devastated lands, especially in Mesopotamia. Meanwhile in Persia, due to the Mongol invasions and the plague, the average life expectancy of the scholarly class in Persia had declined from 72 years in 1209 to 57 years by 1242. [84 ] American economist Timur Kuran proposed an answer why economic development in the Middle East lagged that of the West: Islamic partnership law and inheritance law interacted to keep Middle Eastern enterprises small, never allowing the development of corporate forms. [234 ] [235 ] Some scholars have come to question the traditional picture of decline, pointing to continued astronomical activity as a sign of a continuing and creative scientific tradition through to the 15th and 16th centuries, with the works of Ibn al-Shatir, Ulugh Beg, Ali Kuşçu, al-Birjandi and Taqi al-Din considered noteworthy examples. [236 ] [237 ] This was also the case for other fields, such as medicine, notably the works of Ibn al-Nafis, Mansur ibn Ilyas and Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu; mathematics, notably the works of al-Kashi and al-Qalasadi; philosophy, notably Mulla Sadra's transcendent theosophy; and the social sciences, notably Ibn Khaldun's Muqaddimah (1370), which itself points out that though science was declining in Iraq, Al-Andalus and Maghreb, it continued to flourish in Persia, Syria and Egypt during his time. [2 ]  Controversy over the Extent of an Islamic Golden Age Some academics claim that the fabled contributions of Islam and the Golden Age of Islam are often exaggerated or fabricated, and are not well supported by history or archaeology.  Islam and the decline of Classical Civilization Pulitzer Prize winning journalist John J. O'Neill has recently published Holy Warriors: Islam and the Decline of Classical Civilization, in which he discusses the historical evidence for Islam's influence for the loss of classical civilization, and the lack of archaeological support for such an age. In his 1936 book, 'Mohammed et Charlemagne', Belgian historian Henri Pirenne argued in great detail that the Dark Ages of Europe began rather suddenly in the middle of the seventh century; and that this sudden and catastrophic decline in civilization was due to Islam's blockade of the Mediterranean. Up to that time, Pirenne showed, there was no evidence of a decline in Classical culture. True, the Western Roman Empire as a political entity had disappeared in 476, but the literate, prosperous and urban civilization, which we call "Classical", continued virtually uninterrupted. The Goths and other "Barbarian" peoples, who ruled the provinces of the West after 467, did not try to destroy Roman civilization and civil society. Indeed, as Pirenne showed in great detail, they did everything in their power to preserve it. They adopted the Latin language, accepted Imperial titles from the Emperor in Constantinople, and minted gold coins with the image of the Eastern Emperor emblazoned upon them. [238 ] Regarding the decline of Classical Civilization, O'Neill claims history shows that it was not the Barbarians or the Christians that killed Classical Civilization, but the Islamic Arabs: One of the most enduring problems of history is the decline of Classical Civilization. How was it that the civilization of Greece and Rome, which had endured almost a thousand years, a civilization which prized learning, science and reason, gave way to the world of the Medieval; an age which saw, for a while, the almost complete disappearance of the rationalist spirit of Greece and Rome? The traditional view was that after their seizure of Italy in the fifth century, the Barbarian tribes of Germany and Scythia had reduced Europe to an economic and cultural wasteland, initiating a Dark Age, which was to last half a millennium. After the Reformation, another suspect was added to the list: Christianity, or, more accurately, Catholic Christianity. In this view Christianity was corrupted beyond recognition after the time of Constantine and from the fourth century onwards a power-hungry Church hierarchy, in cahoots with the Imperial authorities, kept the population of Europe in subservience and ignorance, effectively completing the destructive work of the Barbarians. In this ground-breaking work, historian John J. O'Neill examines a great variety of evidence from many specialties and reaches an astonishing and novel conclusion: Classical Civilization was not destroyed by Barbarians or by Christians. It survived intact into the early seventh century. The Vandals and Goths who seized the Western Empire in the fifth century had become completely Romanized by the start of the sixth century. Artistic and intellectual life flourished, as did the economy and the cities built earlier under the Empire. Yet sometime in the middle of the seventh century everything changed. Cities were abandoned, literacy plummeted, royal authority declined and local strongmen, or "barons", seized control of the provinces. The Middle Ages had begun. Who or what had caused this? As O'Neill notes, by the 1920s Belgian historian Henri Pirenne had located the proverbial "smoking gun"; but it was not in the hands of the Barbarians or the Christians: it was held by those who, even then, it had become fashionable to credit with saving, rather than destroying, Classical Civilization: the Arabs. [239 ]  Archaeology and the lack of an Islamic Golden Age O'Neill continues In the twentieth century, a whole new body of evidence became available to historians; evidence unavailable to previous generations of scholars: The evidence of archaeology. And what archaeology tells us has been devastating to the traditional view..... On the word of the written histories, then, archaeologists expected to find, from Spain to eastern Iran, a flourishing and vibrant culture. An Islamic world of enormous cities endowed with all the wealth of antiquity and the plunder gathered in the Muslim wars of conquest. They hoped to find palaces, public baths, universities and mosques; all richly decorated with marble, ceramic and carved stone. In fact, they found nothing of the sort. [240 ] The archaeological non-appearance of the Islamic Golden Age is surely one of the most remarkable discoveries to come to light in the past century. It has not achieved the sensational headlines we might expect, for the simple reason that a non-discovery is of much less interest to the public than a discovery.... Normally, we find one or two finds attributed to the seventh century, then nothing for three centuries, then a resumption of archaeological material in the mid- or late-tenth century. Take, for example Egypt, the largest and most populous Islamic country during the Early Middle Ages. The Muslim conquest of the country occurred in 638 or 639, and we should expect the invaders to have begun, almost immediately, using the wealth of the land to begin building numerous and splendid places of worship, but apparently they didn't. Only two mosques in the whole of Egypt, both in Cairo, are said to date from before the eleventh century: the Amr ibn al-As (641) and the Ahmad ibn Tulun (878). However, the latter building has many features found only in mosques of the eleventh century, so its date of 878 is disputed. Thus, in Egypt, we have a single place of worship, the mosque of Amr ibn al-As, dating from the mid-seventh century, then nothing for another three-and-a-half centuries. Why, in an enormous country with up to, perhaps, five million inhabitants, should the Muslims wait over 300 years before building themselves places of worship? And it is the same throughout the Islamic world. No matter where we go, from Spain to Iran, there is virtually nothing between circa 650 and 950.... The sheer poverty of these remains makes it clear that the fabulously wealthy Cordoba of the eighth, ninth and early tenth centuries is a myth; [241 ]  Contributions of Subjugated Cultures and Islamic Apostates Regarding Arab contributions to the arts and sciences, O'Neill relates that much of what was transmitted from the Arabs was learned from the cultures they subjugated, not really discovered by their own, often illiterate nomad people: The Arabs who emerged from Arabia with Caliph Umar were mostly illiterate nomads, whose knowledge of what we call science was non-existent. Like all barbarians, they were of course impressed, to begin with at least, by the advanced and civilized cultures which they overran. Egypt, Babylonia, and Persia were ancient civilizations with unique attributes. Each had long-established universities, libraries and traditions of learning. When the Arabs conquered these regions there is evidence that they permitted these institutions, for a short time at least, to continue. Furthermore, these nations, and Persia in particular, were conduits through which flowed new ideas and techniques from the great civilizations of the Far East, from India and China. Much, indeed most, of the new technologies and methods that medieval Europeans learned from the Arabs, were not Arab or even Near Eastern at all, but Chinese and Indian. Europeans used the Arabic names for these things (such as “zero” from the Arabic zirr), because it was from Arab sources that they learned them. But they were not Arab. [242 ]  The Darker Impact of Islam on Europe O'Neill also relates how most historians are cowed into silence by modern political correctness, avoiding the facts that the Islamic philosophers who did make valid contributions were considered apostates from Islam in their day, and that the real impact of Islamic philosophy is seen in the paranoia of war in Europe: It is of course widely accepted nowadays that Islam had an enormous ideological impact upon Europe. Historians tend to focus on certain scientific and philosophical ideas, especially those of philosophers such as the tenth-century Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and the later Averroes (Ibn Rushd), who made extensive commentaries upon Aristotle, and who are routinely touted as examples of Islam's benevolent impact upon Europe. But there was a darker, a much darker, side to Islamic influence, the side that modern historians, chained by the bonds of political correctness, do not dare mention. The real ideological impression of Islam was not the enlightened thinking of Avicenna and Averroes, who were in any case rejected and expelled from the Muslim canon, but the darker thinking found in the Koran and the Haditha: the doctrines of perpetual war against non-believers; of holy deception (taqiyya); of death for apostates and heretics; of judicial torture; of slave and concubine-taking as a legitimate occupation. These were the teachings, and not those of the philosophers, which left an indelible imprint on medieval Europe. [243 ] A similar and even more detailed analysis of Islam's impact on Europe can be found in Egyptian scholar and historian Bet Ye'or's The Decline of Eastern Christianity: From Jihad to Dhimmitude, in which she meticulously documents the destruction of Western culture under the hands of Islamic conquerors.
Il y a quelques temps, j'ai lu un livre ou la vie était comparée a un voyage dans un train. Une lecture très intéressante.
La vie est comme un voyage dans un train: on monte et on descend , il y a des accidents, a certains arrêts il y a des surprises et a d'autres il y a une profonde tristesse
Quand on naît et qu'on monte dans le train, nous rencontrons des personnes et nous croyons qu'elles resteront avec nous pendant toute le voyage: ce sont nos parents!
Malheureusement la vérité est toute autre.
Eux ils descendent dans une gare et ils nous laissent sans leur amour et leur affection, sans leur amitié et leur compagnie.
En tous cas, il y a d'autres personnes qui montent dans le train et qui seront pour nous très importantes.
Ce sont nos frères et nos soeurs, nos amis et toutes les personnes merveilleuses que nous aimons.
D'autres ne trouvent que de la tristesse pendant leur voyage.
Il y a d'autres personnes toujours présents et toujours prêtes à aider ceux qui en ont besoin.
Certains quand ils descendent laissent une nostalgie pour toujours....
D'autres montent et descendent tout de suite et nous avons tout juste le temps de les croiser...
Nous sommes surpris que certains passagers que nous aimons s'assoient dans un autre wagon et que pendant ce temps nous laissent voyager seul.
Naturellement, personne peut nous empêcher de les chercher partout dans le trains. Parfois malheureusement nous ne pouvons pas nous asseoir à côte d'eux car la place est déjà prise.
Ce n'est pas grave...le voyage est comme ça: plein de défis de rêves, d'espoirs, d'adieux....mais sans retour.
Essayons de faire le voyage de la meilleure façon possible.
Essayons de comprendre nos voisins de voyage et cherchons le meilleur en chacun d'entre eux.
Rappelons nous qu'à chaque moment du voyage un de nos compagnons peut vaciller et peut avoir besoin de notre compréhension.
Nous aussi pouvons vaciller et il y aura toujours quelqu'un pour nous comprendre.
Le grande mystère du voyage est que nous ne savons pas quand on descendra du train pour toujours, Nous ne savons pas non plus quand nos compagnons de voyage feront la même chose. Même pas celui qui est assis juste à côte de nous.
Moi je pense que je serai triste de quitter le train....j'en suis sûr!
La séparation avec tous les amis que j'ai rencontrés dans le train sera douloureuse, laisser mes proches seuls sera très triste. Mais je suis sûr qu'un jour ou l'autre j'arriverai à la gare centrale et je les reverrai tous arriver avec un bagage qu'ils n'avait pas quand il sont montés dans le train. Par contre je serai heureux d'avoir contribué a augmenter et enrichir leur bagage.
Par contre je serai heureux d'avoir contribué a augmenter et enrichir leur bagage.
Nous tous mes amis, faisons tout le possible pour faire un bon voyage et essayons de laisser un bon souvenir de nous au moment où nous descendrons du train.
A ceux qui font partie de mon train, je souhaite un BON VOYAGE!
The Prophet Muhammad (Peace of Allah be upon Him) Said: When a man commits adultery, Iman (Faith) leaves him; but when he leaves such evil ways, Iman will return to him. The adultery of the eye is to look with desire on the wife of another; and the adultery of the tongue is to utter what is forbidden. Ye followers of Muhammad, I swear of God, there is not anything which God so abhors, as adultery.
Every eye is an adulterer; and every woman perfumes herself, and goes to an assembly where men are, wishing to show herself to them, with a look of lasciviousness, is an adulteress.
The Prophet Muhammad (Peace of Allah be upon Him) Said: The world is sweet in the heart, and green to the eye; and verily God hath brought you, after those who went before you: then look to your action, and abstain from the world of wickedness.
The man I most emulate is a Muslim unencumbered; a man of small family, and little money, a performer of prayers and a perfect worshipper of God in private, one who is unknown, and hath enough to supply his wants, and when he dies, he will leave few women to cry for him, and few legacies. There is no monasticism in Islam.
The Prophet Muhammad (Peace of Allah be upon Him) Said: To every young person who honors the old, on account of their age, may god appoint those who shall honor him in his years. Verily, to honor an old man is showing respect to God. The Prophet Muhammad (Peace of Allah be upon Him) Said: The best of alms is that which the right hand gives, and the left hand knows not of.
There are seven people whom God will draw under His own shadow, on the day when there will be no other shadow; one of them a man who hath given alms and concealed it, so that his left hand knew not what his right hand did.
The people of the Rasul's house killed a goat, and the Rasul enquired, "What remained of it?" Aishah said, "Nothing but its shoulder; for we have sent the rest to the poor and neighbors." The Rasul said, "The whole goat remaineth except its shoulder; that is, that remaineth which ye have given away, and what ye have kept in the house is frail."
The Prophet Muhammad (Peace of Allah be upon Him) Said:
Fear God, in treating dumb animals and ride them when they are fit to be ridden and get off them when they are tired.
An adulteress passed by a dog at a well; and the dog was holding out his tongue from thirst, which was near killing him, and the woman drew off her boot, and tied it to the end of her garment, and drew water for the dog, and gave him to drink; and she was forgiven for that act.
A woman was punished for a cat which she tied till it died from hunger. She gave the cat nothing to eat, nor did she set it at liberty so that it might find some food.
The Prophet Muhammad (Peace of Allah be upon Him) Said:
That person will not enter Paradise who hath one atom of pride in his heart." And a man present said, "Verily, a man is fond of having good clothes, and good shoes." Muhammad said, "God is Beauty and delighted in the beautiful; but pride is holding man in contempt."
The Prophet Muhammad (Peace of Allah be upon Him) Said:
Every man who shall beg, in order to increase his property, God will diminish it.
Verily God loves a Muslim with a family, who is poor, and withholds himself from the unlawful and from begging.
Verily it is better for any of you to take your rope and bring a bundle of wood upon your back and sell it, in which case God guards your honor than to beg of people, whether they give or not; if they do not give, your reputation suffers, and you return disappointed; and if they give, it is worse than that, for it lays you under obligation.
There are two benefits, of which the generality of men are the losers, and of which they do not know the value.
The Prophet Muhammad (Peace of Allah be upon Him) Said:
Prayers lighten the heart, and charity is proof of Iman (Faith), and abstinence from sin is perfect splendor; the Quran is a proof of gain to you, if you do good, and it is a detriment to you if you do wrong; and every man who rises in the morning either does that which will be the means of his redemption or his ruin.
When you speak, speak the truth; perform when you promise; discharge your trust; commit not fornication; be chaste; have no impure desires; withhold your hands from striking, and from taking that which is unlawful and bad. The best of God's servants are those who when seen, remind of God; and the worst of God's servants are those who carry tales about, and do mischief and separate friends, and seek for the defects of the good.
The Prophet Muhammad (Peace of Allah be upon Him) Said: Modesty and chastity are part of the faith.
The Prophet Muhammad (Peace of Allah be upon Him) Said:
Muhammad once referred to strife, and said, "It will appear at the time of knowledge leaving the world." Ziad said, "O Messenger of God, how will knowledge go from the world, since we read the Quran, and teach it to our children, and our children to theirs; and so on till the last day?" Then Muhammad said, "O Ziad, I supposed you the most learned man of Medinah. Do the Jews and Christians who read the Bible and the Evangel act on them?" Do not exceed bounds in praising me, as the Christians do in praising Jesus, the son of Mary, by calling Him God, and the Son of God; I am only the Lord's servant; then call me the servant of God and His messenger.
he Prophet Muhammad (Peace of Allah be upon Him) Said: TWere it not for fear of troubling my disciples, verily I would order them to clean their teeth before every prayer. God is pure and loves purity and cleanliness.
The Prophet Muhammad (Peace of Allah be upon Him) Said: When the child (of Zainab) was brought to Muhammad, dying; its body trembling and moving; the eyes of the Apostle of God shed many tears. And Sad said, "O Messenger of God! What is the weeping and shedding of tears?" Muhammad replied, "This is an expression of the tenderness and compassion, which the Lord has put into the hearts of His servants; the Lord does not have compassion on and commiserate with His servants, except such as are tender and full of feeling." Muhammad said, "Do you think this woman will cast her own child into the fire?" Those present said, "No." Muhammad said, "Verily God is more compassionate on His creatures, than this woman on her own child."
AVEZ-VOUS DÉJÀ RÉFLÉCHI À LA VÉRITÉ? La faute la plus sérieuse d'un homme est de ne pas réfléchir. Il est impossible de découvrir la vérité sans se poser des questions essentielles telles que:"Qui m'a créé?"ou"Quel est le sens de ma vie?". Lorsqu'un homme omet ces questions,il se trouve emprisonné dans le cercle vicieux de la vie quotidienne et se transforme en une créature égoïste.Ces ouvrages invite les gens à se poser ces questions essentielles et à découvrir la véritable signification de la vie,leur donnant les réponses du Coran. Telle est la voie de ton Seigneur dans toute sa rectitude
1. Alif, Lam, Mim. 2. ALLAH is HE besides Whom there is none worthy of worship, the Living, the Self-Subsisting and All-Sustaining. 3. HE has sent down to thee the Book containing the truth and fulfilling that which precedes it; and HE has sent down the Torah and the Gospel before this, as a guidance to the people; and HE has sent down the Discrimination. 4. Surely, those who deny the Signs of ALLAH, shall have a severe punishment. And ALLAH is Mighty, Lord of Retribution. 5. Surely, nothing in the earth or in the heaven is hidden from ALLAH. 6. HE it is who fashions you in the wombs as HE wills; there is none worthy of worship but HE, the Mighty, the Wise. 7. HE it is who has sent down to thee the Book; in it there are verses that are firm and decisive in meaning - they are the basis of the Book - and there are others that are susceptible of different interpretations. But those in whose hearts is perversity pursue such thereof as are susceptible of different interpretations, seeking to cause discord and seeking wrong interpretations of it. And none knows it except ALLAH and those who are firmly grounded in knowledge; they say, `We believe in it; the whole is from our Lord.' - And none take heed except those gifted with understanding - 8. `Our Lord, let not our hearts become perverse after Thou hast guided us, and bestow on us mercy from Thyself; surely Thou art the Great Bestower; 9. `Our Lord, Thou wilt certainly assemble mankind together on the Day about which there is no doubt; surely, ALLAH never fails in HIS promise.'
10. Those who disbelieve - their possessions and their children shall not avail them at all against ALLAH; and it is they that are the fuel of the Fire. 11. Their case is the like the case of the people of Pharaoh and those before them; They rejected our Signs; So ALLAH punished them for their sins, and ALLAH is severe in punishing. 12. Say to those who disbelieve, `You shall be overcome and be gathered unto Hell; and an evil place of rest it is.' 13. Certainly there was for you a Sign in the two armies which encountered each other - one army fighting in the way of ALLAH and the other disbelieving, whom they saw with their own eyes to be twice as many as themselves. Thus does ALLAH strengthen with HIS aid whomsoever HE pleases. In that surely is a lesson for those who have eyes. 14. Fair-seeming to men is made the love of desired things -women and children, and stored up heaps of gold and silver, and horses of mark and cattle and crops. That is the provision of the present life; but it is ALLAH with Whom is an excellent home. 15. Say, `Shall I inform you of something better than that ?' For those who fear God, there are Gardens with their Lord; beneath which streams flow; therein shall they abide; and pure mates and ALLAH's pleasure. And ALLAH is Mindful of HIS servants.
16. Those who say, `Our Lord, we do believe; forgive us, therefore, our sins and save us from the punishment of the Fire; 17. The steadfast, and the truthful, and the humble, and those who spend in the way of ALLAH and those who pray for pardon in the latter part of the night. 18. ALLAH bears witness that there is no god but HE - and also do the angels and those possessed of knowledge, maintaining justice; there is no god but HE, the Mighty, the Wise. 19. Surely the true religion with ALLAH is Islam. And those who were given the Book did not disagree but, after knowledge had come to them, out of mutual envy. And whoso denies the Signs of ALLAH, then surely ALLAH is quick at reckoning. 20. But if they dispute with thee, say `I have surrendered myself completely to ALLAH, and also those who follow me.' And say to those who have been given the Book and to the Unlearned, `Have you also surrendered ? If they surrender, then they will surely be rightly guided, but if they turn back, then thy duty is only to convey the Message. And ALLAH is Watchful of HIS servants. 21. Surely, those who deny the signs of ALLAH and seek to slay the Prophets unjustly and seek to slay such men as enjoin equity - announce to them a painful punishment. 22. Those are they whose deed shall come to naught in this world and in the next, and they shall have no helpers.
23. Hast thou not seen those who have been given their portion of the Book ? They are called to the Book of ALLAH that it may judge between them, but a party of them turn away in aversion. 24. That is because they say, `The Fire shall not touch us except for a limited number of days.' And what they used to forge has deceived them regarding their religion. 25. How will it be with them when WE will gather them together on the Day about which there is no doubt; and when every soul will be paid in full what it has earned, and they shall not be wronged ? 26. Say, `O ALLAH, Lord of Sovereignty, Thou givest sovereignty to whomsoever Thou pleasest; and Thou takest away sovereignty from whomsoever Thou pleasest. Thou exaltest whomsoever Thou pleasest and Thou abasest whomsoever Thou pleasest. In Thy hand is all good. Thou surely hast power to do all things. 27. Thou makest the night pass into the day and makest the day pass into the night. And Thou bringest forth the living from the dead and bringest forth the dead from the living. And Thou givest to whomsoever Thou pleasest without measure.' 28. Let not the believers take disbelievers for friends in preference to believers - and whoever does that has no connection with ALLAH - except that you guard yourselves fully against them. And ALLAH cautions you against HIS punishment; and to ALLAH is the returning. 29. Say, `Whether you hide what is in your breasts or reveal it, ALLAH knows it; and HE knows whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. And ALLAH has power to do all things.'
30. Beware of the Day when every soul shall find itself confronted with all the good it has done and all the evil it has done. It will wish there were a great distance between it and that evil. And ALLAH cautions you against HIS punishment. And ALLAH is Most Compassionate to HIS servants. 31. Say `If you love ALLAH, follow me; then will ALLAH love you and forgive you your sins.' And ALLAH is Most Forgiving and Merciful. 32. Say, `Obey ALLAH and HIS Messenger;' but if they turn away, then remember that ALLAH loves not the disbelievers. 33. ALLAH chose Adam and Noah and the family of Abraham and the family of Imran above all peoples of the time. 34. They were descendants of one another and ALLAH is All-Hearing, All-Knowing. 35. Remember when a women of Imran said, `My Lord, I have vowed to Thee what is in my womb to be dedicated to Thy service. So do Thou accept it of me; Verily Thou alone art All-Hearing, All-Knowing.' 36. But when she was delivered of it, she said, `My Lord, I am delivered of a female,' - and ALLAH knew best of what she was delivered and the male she desired to have was not like the female she was delivered of - `and I have named her Mary, and I commit her and her offspring to Thy protection from Satan, the rejected. 37. So her Lord accepted her with gracious acceptance and caused her to grow an excellent growth and made Zachariah her guardian. Whenever Zachariah visited her in the chamber, he found with her provisions. He said, `O Mary whence hast thou this ?' She replied, `It is from ALLAH.' Surely ALLAH gives to whomsoever HE pleases without measure.
38. Then and there did Zachariah pray to his Lord, saying, `My Lord grant me from Thyself pure offspring; surely thou art the Hearer of Prayer.' 39. And the angels called to him as he stood praying in the chamber, `ALLAH gives thee glad tidings of Yahya, who shall testify to the truth of a word from ALLAH - noble and chaste and a Prophet, from among the righteous. 40. He said `My Lord, how shall I have a son, when old age has overtaken me already, and my wife is barren ?' He answered, `Such is the way of ALLAH; HE does what HE pleases,' 41. He said `My Lord, give me a commandment.' He replied, `The commandment for thee is that thou shalt not speak to men for three days except by signs. And remember thy Lord much and glorify HIM in the evening and in the early morning.' 42. And remember when the angels said, `ALLAH has chosen thee and purified thee and chosen thee above all women of the time. 43. `O Mary, be obedient to thy Lord and prostrate thyself and worship the one God with those who worship HIM.' 44. This is of the tidings of things unseen which WE reveal to thee. And thou was not with them when they cast their arrows, as to which of them should be the guardian of Mary, nor was thou with them when they disputed with one another. 45. When the angels said, `O Mary, ALLAH gives thee glad tidings of a son through a word from HIM; his name shall be the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, honoured in this world and in the next, and of those who are granted nearness to God;
46. `And he shall speak to the people in the cradle, and when of middle age, and he shall be of the righteous. 47. She said, `My Lord, how shall I have a son, when no man has touch me ? He said, `Such is the way of ALLAH. HE creates what HE pleases. When HE decrees a thing HE says to it `Be,' and it is; 48. And HE will teach him the Book and the Wisdom and the Torah and the Gospel; 49. And will send him as a Messenger to the Children of Israel with the Message, `I come to you with a Sign from your Lord, which is, that I will fashion out for you a creation out of clay after the manner of a bird; then I will breath into it a new spirit and it will become a soaring being by the command of ALLAH; and I will heal the night blind and the leprous, and I will quicken the dead by the command of ALLAH; and I will announce to you what you will eat and what you will store up in your houses. Surely therein is a Sign for you, if you are believers. 50. `And I come fulfilling that which is before me, namely the Torah; and to allow you some of that which was forbidden unto you, and I come to you with a Sign from your Lord; so fear ALLAH and obey me; 51. `Surely, ALLAH is my Lord and your Lord, so worship him this is the right path.' 52. And when Jesus perceived their disbelief, he said, `Who will be my helpers in the cause of ALLAH ?' The disciples answered, `We are the helpers of ALLAH. We have believed in ALLAH. And bear thou witness that we are obedient; 53. `Our Lord, we believe in that which thou hast sent down and we follow this Messenger. So write us down among those who bear witness.' 54. And Jesus's enemies planned and ALLAH also planned, and ALLAH is the Best of Planners. 55. Remember the time when ALLAH said' `O Jesus, I will take you and raise you to Myself, and will clear thee of the charges of those who disbelieve, and will exalt those who follow thee above those who disbelieve, until the Day of Resurrection; then to ME shall be your return, and I will judge between you concerning that wherein you differ. 56. `Then as for those who disbelieve, I will punish them with a severe punishment in this world and in the next, and they shall have no helpers; 57. `And as for those who believe and do good works, HE will give them their full rewards. And ALLAH loves not the wrongdoers.' 58. That is what WE recite unto thee of the Signs and the Reminder, full of Wisdom. 59. Surely the case of Jesus is like the case of Adam. HE created him out of dust, then he said to him, "Be', and he was. 60. This is the truth from thy Lord, so be thou not of those who doubt. 61. Now whoso disputes with thee concerning him, after what has come to thee of Knowledge, say to him `Come, let us call our sons and your sons, and our women and your women, and our people and your people; then let us pray fervently and invoke the curse of ALLAH on those who lie. 62. This certainly is the true account. There is none worthy of worship save ALLAH; and surely, it is ALLAH Who is the Mighty, the Wise. 63. But if they turn away, then remember that ALLAH fully knows the mischief-makers. 64. Say, `O people of the Book ! come to a word equal to us and you - that we worship none but ALLAH, and that we associate no partner with HIM, and that some of us take not others for Lords beside ALLAH.' But if they turn away, then say `Bear witness that we have submitted to God.' 65. O People of the Book ! Why do you dispute concerning Abraham, When the Torah and the Gospel were not revealed till after him ? Will you not understand. 66. Behold ! you are those who disputed about that whereof you had some knowledge. Why then do you now dispute about that whereof you have no knowledge at all ? ALLAH knows and you know not. 67. Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian but he was ever inclined to God and obedient to HIM, and he was not of those who associate gods with ALLAH. 68. Surely, the nearest of men to Abraham are those who followed him and this prophet and those who believe in him, and ALLAH is the Friend of the believers. 69. A party of the People of the Book would fain lead you astray; but they lead astray none except themselves, only they perceive not. 70. O People of the Book ! Why do you deny the signs of ALLAH, while you are witnesses thereof ? 71. O People of the Book ! Why do you confound truth with falsehood and hide the truth knowingly ? 72. And a party of the People of the Book say, `Declare your belief outwardly in that which has been revealed unto the believers, in the early part of the day, and disbelieve in the latter part of thereof; perchance they may return. 73. And obey none but him who follows your religion.' Say, `Surely, true guidance - the guidance of ALLAH, - is, that one be given the like of that which has been given to you - or they would argue with you before your Lord.' Say, `All grace is in the hand of ALLAH. HE gives it to whomsoever HE pleases. And ALLAH is Bountiful, All-knowing. 74. `HE selects for HIS mercy whomsoever HE pleases. And ALLAH is the Lord of mighty grace. 75. Among the People of the Book there is he who, if thou trust him with a treasure, will return it to thee; and among them is he who, if thou trust him with a dinar, will not return it to thee, unless thou keep standing over him. That is because they say, `We are not liable to be called to account in the matter of the Unlearned people; and they utter a lie against ALLAH knowingly. 76. Nay, but whoso fulfills his pledge and fears ALLAH -verily, ALLAH loves those who fear Him. 77. As for those who take a paltry price in exchange for their covenant with ALLAH and their oaths, they shall have no portion in the life to come, and ALLAH will neither speak to them nor look upon them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will HE purify them; and for them shall be a grievous punishment. 78. And, surely, among them is a party who twist their tongues while reciting the Book that you may think it to be part of the Book, while it is not part of the Book. And they say `It is from ALLAH;' while it is not from ALLAH; and they utter a lie against ALLAH while they know. 79. It does not befit a truthful man that ALLAH should give him the Book and Wisdom and Prophethood, and then he should say to men, `Be my worshippers instead of ALLAH; but he would say, `Be solely devoted to the Lord because you teach the book and because you study it. 80. Nor does it befit that he should bid you to take angels and Prophets for lords. What ! would he enjoin you to disbelieve after you have submitted to God. 81. And remember the time when ALLAH took a covenant from the people through the Prophets, saying `Whatever I give you of the Book and Wisdom and then there comes to you a Messenger, fulfilling that which is with you, you shall believe in him and help him.' And HE said, `Do you agree, and do you accept the responsibility which I lay upon you in this matter ?' They said `We agree.' HE said `Then bear witness and I am with you among the witnesses.' 82. Now whoso turns away after this, then surely, those are the transgressors. 83. Do the seek a religion other than ALLAH's, while to HIM submits whosoever is in the heavens and the earth, willingly or unwillingly, and to HIM shall they all be returned ?
84. Say, `We believe in ALLAH and that which has been revealed to us, and that which was revealed to Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes, and in that which was given to Moses and Jesus and other Prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them and to HIM we submit. 85. And whoso seeks a religion other than Islam, it shall not be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he shall be among the losers. 86. How shall ALLAH guide a people who have disbelieved after believing and who had borne witness that the messenger was true and to whom clear proofs had come ? And ALLAH guides not the wrong doing people. 87. As for such - their reward is that on them shall be the curse of ALLAH and of angels and of men, all together. 88. They shall abide thereunder. Their punishment shall not be lightened nor shall they be reprieved. 89. Except those who repent thereafter and amend. And surely ALLAH is Most Forgiving, Merciful. 90. Surely those who disbelieve after they have believed and then increase in their disbelief, their repentance shall not be accepted, and these are they who have gone astray. 91. As for those who have disbelieved, and die while they are disbelievers, there shall not be accepted from anyone of them even the earth-full of gold though he offer it as ransom. It is these for whom shall be a grievous punishment, and they shall have no helpers
92. You cannot attain to righteousness unless you spend out of that which you love; and whatever you spend, ALLAH surely knows it well. 93. All food was lawful to the Children of Israel, except what Israel forbade himself before the Torah was sent down. Say, `Bring, then, the Torah and read it, if you are truthful.' 94. Now whoso forges a lie against ALLAH after this, then it is these that are the wrongdoers. 95. Say, `ALLAH has declared the truth; follow, therefore, the religion of Abraham who was ever inclined to ALLAH, and he was not of those who associated gods with Him.' 96. Surely the first House founded for all mankind is that at Becca, abounding in blessings and a guidance for all peoples. 97. In it are manifest Signs; it is the place of Abraham; and whoso enters it, is safe. And pilgrimage to the House is a duty which men - those who can find a way thither - owe to ALLAH. And whoso disbelieves, let him remember that ALLAH is surely Independent of all creatures. 98. Say, `O People of the Book ! why deny ye the signs of ALLAH, while ALLAH is Witness of what you do ? 99. Say, `O People of the Book ! why hinder ye the believers from the path of ALLAH, seeking to make it crooked, while you are witnesses thereof ? And ALLAH is not unmindful of what you do.' 100. O ye who believe ! if you obey any party of those who have been given the Book, they will turn you again into disbelievers after you have believed. 101. How would you disbelieve, while to you are rehearsed the Signs of ALLAH, and HIS messenger is in your midst ? And he who holds fast to ALLAH is indeed guided to the right path. 102. O ye who believe ! fear ALLAH as HE should be feared; and let not death overtake you except when you are in a state of submission. 103. And hold fast, all together, to the rope of ALLAH and be not divided; and remember the favour of ALLAH which HE bestowed upon you when you were enemies and HE united your hearts in love, so that by HIS grace you became as brothers; and you were on the brink of a pit of fire and HE saved you from it. Thus does ALLAH explain to you HIS commandments that you may be guided. 104. And let there always be among you a body of men who should invite to goodness, and enjoin virtue and forbid evil. And it is they who shall prosper. 105. And be not like those who became divided and who disagreed among themselves after clear proofs had come to them. And it is they for whom there shall be grievous punishment, 106. On the day when some faces shall be white, and some faces shall be black. As for those whose faces will be black, it will be said to them: `Did you disbelieve after believing ? Taste then the punishment because you disbelieved.' 107. And as for those whose faces will be white, they will be in the mercy of ALLAH; therein will they abide. 108. These are the Signs of ALLAH, comprising the Truth. WE rehearse them to thee and ALLAH desires not any injustice to HIS cr109. And to ALLAH belongs whatever is in the heavens and what ever is in the earth, and to ALLAH shall all affairs be returned for decision. 110. You are the best people raised for the good of mankind; you enjoin good and forbid evil and believe in ALLAH. And if the People of the Book had believed, it would have, surely, been better for them. Some of them are believers, but most of them are transgressors. 111. They cannot harm you save that they may cause you slight hurt; and if they fight you, they will turn their backs to you. Then they shall not be helped. 112. They shall be smitten with abasement wherever they are found unless they are protected by a covenant with ALLAH or by a covenant with men. They have incurred the wrath of ALLAH, and they have been smitten with wretchedness. That is because they rejected the Signs of ALLAH and sought to slay the Prophets unjustly. That is because they rebelled and used to transgress. 113. They are not all alike. Among the People of the Book, there is a party who stand by their covenant; they recite the word of ALLAH in the hours of the night and prostrate themselves before HIM. 114. They believe in ALLAH and the Last Day, and enjoin good and forbid evil, and hasten to vie with one another in good works. And these are among the righteous. 115. And whatever good they do, they shall not be denied its due reward, and ALLAH well knows those who guard against evil. eatures. 116. As for those who disbelieve, their possessions and their children shall not avail them aught against ALLAH, and these are the inmates of the Fire; therein shall they abide. 117. The likeness of what they spend for the present life is as the likeness of a wind wherein there is intense cold. It smites the harvest of a people who have wronged themselves and destroys it. And ALLAH wronged them not but they wronged themselves. 118. O ye who believe ! take not others than your own people as intimate friends; they will spare no pains to ruin you. They love to see you in trouble. Hatred has already shown itself through the utterances of their mouths and what their breasts hide is greater still. We have made clear to you OUR commandments, if you will only use your understanding. 119. Behold ! you are those who love them, but they love you not. And you believe in the Book, all of it. When they meet you, they say, `We believe;' but when they are alone, they bite their finger tips at you for rage. Say, `Perish in your rage. Surely ALLAH has full knowledge of what is hidden in your breast.' 120. If anything good befalls you, it grieves them; and if an evil afflicts you, they rejoice thereat. But if you be steadfast and righteous, their designs will not harm you at all; surely ALLAH encompasses all that they do. 121. And remember when thou didst go forth early in the morning from thy household, assigning to the believers their positions for battle. And ALLAH is All-Hearing, All-Knowing. 122. When two parties from among you, thought of showing cowardice, although ALLAH was their Friend. And upon ALLAH should the believers rely. 123. And ALLAH had already helped you at Badr when you were weak. So take ALLAH for your protector so that you may be grateful. 124. When thou didst say to the believers, `Will it not suffice you that your Lord should help you with three thousand angels sent down from on high. 125. Yea, if you be steadfast and righteous and they came upon you immediately in hot haste, your Lord will help you with five thousand angels, attacking vehemently. 126. And ALLAH has made it only as glad tidings for you and to put your hearts at rest thereby; and help comes from ALLAH alone, the Mighty, the Wise. 127. This will be, that HE might cut off a part of the disbelievers or abase them so that they may go back frustrated. 128. It is none of thy concern whether HE may turn to them in mercy or punish them, for they are wrongdoers. 129. And to ALLAH belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. HE forgives whomsoever HE pleases and punishes whomsoever HE pleases, and ALLAH is Most Forgiving, Merciful. 130. O ye who believe ! devour not interest involving multiple additions, and fear ALLAH that you may prosper. 131. And fear the Fire which has been prepared for the disbelieves. 132. And obey ALLAH and the Messenger that you may be shown mercy. 133. And hasten towards forgiveness from your Lord, and the Paradise whose value is the heavens and the earth. It is prepared for the God-fearing. 134. Those, who spends in prosperity and adversity, and those who suppress anger, and pardon men; and ALLAH loves those who do good; 135. And those who, when they commit a foul deed or wrong themselves, remember ALLAH and implore forgiveness for their sins - and who can forgive sins except ALLAH - and do not knowingly persist in what they do. 136. It is these whose reward is forgiveness from their Lord, and gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide; and an excellent is the reward of good workers. 137. Surely there have been many dispensations before you; so travel through the earth and see how evil was the end of those who treated the Prophets as liars. 138. This Qur'an is a clear demonstration to men, and a guidance and an admonition to the God-fearing. 139. Slacken not nor grieve; and you shall certainly have the upper hand, if you are true believers. 140. If you have received an injury, surely the disbelieving people have already received a similar injury. And such days WE cause to alternate among men that they may be admonished, and that ALLAH may cause to be distinguished those who believe and may take witnesses from among you; and ALLAH loves not the unjust.
141. And that ALLAH may purify those who believe, and destroy the disbelievers. 142. Do you suppose that you will enter Heaven while ALLAH has not yet caused to be distinguished those of you that strive in the way of ALLAH and has not yet caused to be distinguished the steadfast. 143. And you used to wish for such a death before you met it; now you have seen it face to face, then why do some of you seek to avoid it. 144. And Muhammad is but a messenger. Verily all Messengers have passed away before him. If then he dies or is slain, will you turn back on your heels ? And he who turns back on his heels shall not harm ALLAH at all. And ALLAH will certainly reward the grateful. 145. And no soul can die except by ALLAH's leave, - a decree with a fixed term. And whoever desires the reward of the present world, WE will give him thereof; and whoever desires the reward of the Hereafter, WE will give him thereof; and WE will surely reward the grateful. 146. And many a Prophet there has been beside whom fought numerous companies of their followers. They slacken not for aught that befell them in the way of ALLAH nor did they weaken, nor did they humiliate themselves before the enemy. And ALLAH loves the steadfast. 147. And they uttered not a word except that they said, `Our Lord forgive us our sins and our excesses in our conduct, and make firm our steps and help us against the disbelieving people. 148. So ALLAH gave them the reward of this world, and also an excellent reward of the Hereafter; and ALLAH love. s those who do good. 149. O ye who believe ! if you obey those who have disbelieved, they will cause you to turn back on your heels, and you will become the losers 150. Nay, ALLAH is your Protector, and HE is the Best of helpers. 151. And WE shall cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieved because they associate partners with ALLAH, for which HE has sent down no authority. Their abode is the Fire; and evil is the habitation of the wrongdoers. 152. And ALLAH had surely made good to you HIS promise when you were slaying and destroying them by HIS leave, until, when your courage failed you and you disputed among yourselves concerning the order and you disobeyed, after HE had shown you that which you love, HE withdrew HIS help. Among you were those who desired the present world, and among you were those who desired the Hereafter. Then HE turned you away from them, that HE might try you - and HE has surely pardoned you, and ALLAH is Gracious to the believers - 153. When you were running away and looked not back at anyone while the Messenger was calling you, in your rear, then HE gave you one sorrow after another sorrow, that you might not grieve for what escaped you nor for what befell you. And ALLAH is quite Aware of what you do.
154. Then after the sorrow HE sent down peace on you - a slumber that overcame a party of you - while the other part was anxious concerning their ownselves. They entertain about ALLAH wrong thoughts of ignorance. They said, `Have we any part in the affair ?' Say, `Verily the affair wholly belongs to ALLAH.' They hide in their minds what they disclose not to thee. They say, `If we had any part in the determination of the affairs, we should not have been killed here.' Say, `If you had remained in your homes, surely those on whom fighting had been enjoined would have gone forth to their death-beds that ALLAH might fulfill HIS decree and that HE might test what is in your breasts and that HE might purge what was in your hearts. And ALLAH knows well what is in your breasts; 155. Those of you who turned their backs on the day when the two host met, surely it was Satan who sought to make them stumble because of certain doings of theirs. But certainly ALLAH has already pardoned them. Verily ALLAH is Most Forgiving, Forbearing. 156. O ye who believe ! be not like those who have disbelieved, and who say of their brethren when they travel in the land or go forth to war: `Had they been with us, they would not have died or been slain.' They say this that ALLAH may make it a cause of regret in their hearts. And ALLAH gives life and causes death and ALLAH is Mindful of what you do. 157. And if you are slain in the cause of ALLAH or you die, surely, forgiveness from ALLAH and mercy are better than what they hoard.
158. And if you die or be slain, surely unto ALLAH shall you be gathered together. 159. And it is by the great mercy of ALLAH that thou art kind towards them, and if thou hadst been rough and hard-hearted, they would surely have dispersed from around thee. So pardon them and ask forgiveness for them, and consult them in matters of administration; and when thou art resolved, then put thy trust in ALLAH. Surely, ALLAH loves those who put their trust in HIM. 160. If ALLAH helps you none can overcome you; but if HE forsakes you, then who is there that can help you beside HIM ? In ALLAH, then, let the believers put their trust. 161. And it is not possible for a Prophet to act dishonestly, and whosoever acts dishonestly shall bring with him that, concerning which he has been dishonest, on the Day of Resurrection. Then every soul shall be fully paid what it has earned; and they shall not be wronged. 162. Is he who follows the pleasure of ALLAH like him who draws on himself the wrath of ALLAH and whose abode is Hell ? And an evil retreat it is ! 163. They have different ranks with ALLAH; and ALLAH sees what they do. 164. Verily, ALLAH has conferred a favour on the believers by raising among them a Messenger from among themselves who recites to them HIS Signs, and purifies them and teaches them the Book and Wisdom; and, before that, they were surely in manifest error. 165. What ! when a misfortune befalls you - and you had already inflicted twice as much - you say, `Whence is this ? Say, `It is from your ownselves.' Surely ALLAH has the power over all things.
166. And that which befell you, on the day when the two host met, was by ALLAH's command; and this was so that he might cause the believers to be distinguished; 167. And that HE might cause the hypocrites to be distinguished. And it was said to them, `Come ye, fight in the cause of ALLAH and repel the attack of the enemy;' they said, `If we knew how to fight we would surely follow you.' They were that day, nearer to disbelief than belief. They say with their mouths what is not in their hearts. And ALLAH knows quite well what they hide. 168. It is these who said to their brethren, while they themselves remained behind, `If they had obeyed us, they would not have been slain.' Say, `Then avert death from yourselves, if you are truthful.' 169. Think not of those, who have been slain in the cause of ALLAH, as dead. Nay, they are living, in the presence of their Lord, and are granted gifts from HIM; 170. Jubilant because that which ALLAH has given them of HIS bounty; and rejoicing for the sake of those who have not yet joined them from behind them, because on them shall come no fear nor shall they grieve. 171. They rejoice at the favour of ALLAH and HIS bounty, and at the fact that ALLAH suffers not the reward of the believers to be lost. 172. Those who answered the call of ALLAH and the Messenger after they had received an injury - such of them as do good and act righteously shall have a great reward; 173. Those to whom men said, `People have mustered against you, therefore fear them,' but this only increased their faith and they said, `Sufficient for us is ALLAH, and an excellent Guardian is HE.'
174. So they returned with a mighty favour from ALLAH and a great bounty, while no evil had touched them; and they followed the pleasure of ALLAH; and ALLAH is the Lord of great bounty. 175. It is Satan who only frightens his friends, so fear them not but fear ME, if you are believers. 176. And let not those who hasten to fall into disbelief grieve thee; surely, they cannot harm ALLAH in any way. ALLAH desires not to assign them any portion in the life to come; and they shall have a severe punishment. 177. Surely those who have purchased disbelief at the price of faith cannot harm ALLAH at all; and they shall have a grievous punishment. 178. And let not the disbelievers think that OUR granting them respite is good for them; in fact the result of OUR granting them respite will only be that they will increase in sin; and they shall have an humiliating punishment. 179. ALLAH would not leave the believers in the state in which you are, until HE separated the wicked from the good. Nor would ALLAH reveal to you the unseen. But ALLAH chooses of HIS Messengers whom HE pleases. Believe therefore in ALLAH and HIS Messengers. If you believe and be righteous, you shall have a great reward. 180. And let not those who are niggardly in spending what ALLAH has given them of HIS bounty, think that it is good for them; nay, it is bad for them. That with respect to which they were niggardly shall be put as a collar round their necks on the Day of Resurrection. And to ALLAH belongs the heritage of the heavens and the earth, and ALLAH is fully Aware of what you do.
195. So their Lord answered their prayers, saying, `I will suffer not the work of any worker from among you, whether male or female, to be lost. You are from one another. Those, therefore, who have emigrated, and have been driven out of their homes, and have been persecuted for MY cause, and have fought and been slain, I will surely remit from them their evil deeds and will cause them to enter gardens through which streams flow - a reward from ALLAH, and with ALLAH is the best of rewards. 196. Let not the moving about of the disbelievers in the land deceive thee. 197. It is a small and temporary advantage, then Hell shall be their abode. What an evil place of rest. 198. But those who fear their Lord shall have gardens through which streams flow; therein shall they abide - an entertainment from ALLAH. And that which is with ALLAH is still better for the righteous. 199. And surely, among the People of the Book there are some who believe in ALLAH and in what has been sent down to you and in what was sent down to them, humbling themselves before ALLAH. They barter not the Signs of ALLAH for a paltry price. It is these who shall have their reward with their Lord. Surely ALLAH is Swift in settling account. 200. O ye who believe ! be steadfast and strive to excel in steadfastness and be on your guard and fear ALLAH, that you may prosper.
181. And surely, ALLAH has heard the utterance of those who said, `ALLAH is poor and we are rich.' WE shall record what they have said, and their attempts to slay the Prophets unjustly; and WE shall say, `Take ye the punishment of the burning;' 182. That is because of that which your hands have sent on before.' and ALLAH is not at all unjust to HIS servants. 183. Those who say, `ALLAH has charged us not to believe in any Messenger until he brings us an offering which fire devours.' Say, `There have already come to you Messengers before me with clear Signs and with that which you ask for. Why, then, did you seek to slay them, if you are truthful ?' 184. And if they accuse thee of lying, even so were accused of lying Messengers before thee who came with clear Signs and Books of wisdom and the illuminating Book. 185. Every soul shall taste of death. And you shall be paid in full your rewards only on the Day of Resurrection. So whosoever is removed away from the Fire and is made to enter Heaven has indeed attained his goal. And the life of this world is nothing but an illusory enjoyment. 186. You shall surely be tried in your possessions and your persons and you shall surely hear many hurtful things from those who were given the Book before you and from those who set up equals to ALLAH. But if you show patience and fortitude and act righteously, that indeed is a matter of high resolve. 187. And remember when ALLAH took a covenant from those who were given the Book, saying, `You shall expound it to the people and not hide it.' But they threw it away behind their backs, and bartered it for a paltry price. Evil is that which they purchased. 188. Think not that those who exult in what they have done, and love to be praised for what they have not done - think not that they are secure from punishment. They shall suffer a grievous chastisement. 189. And to ALLAH belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and the earth; and ALLAH has the power over all things. 190. In the creation of the heavens and the earth and in the alternation of the night and the day there are indeed Signs for men of understanding.; 191. Those who remember ALLAH standing, sitting, and lying on their sides, and ponder over the creation of the heavens and the earth; and say, `Our Lord, thou hast not created this universe in vain. Holy art Thou; save us then from the punishment of the Fire; 192. `Our Lord, whomsoever THOU causest to enter the Fire, him THOU hast surely disgraced. And the wrongdoers shall have no helpers; 193. `Our Lord, we have heard a Crier calling us unto faith, saying, `Believe ye in your Lord,' and we have believed. Our Lord, forgive us, therefore, our sins and remit from us our evils and in death join us with the righteous; 194. `Our Lord, give us what Thou hast promised to us through Thy Messengers; and disgrace us not on the Day of Resurrection. Surely, Thou breakest not Thy promise.